Saturday, August 18, 2012

Native Plant Medicine: Anise (Pimpinella anisum)

Source
Native Plant Medicine: Anise ( Pimpinella anisum

The genus specified ( Pimpinella anisum ) was classified by the Cherokee as a plant from one of the four directions called North. It was referred to as u ga na s dah, or "sweet plant," which correlates to the well known flavor associating the blue flowered Greek licorice, "sweet root," which also is known for the region of the Mediterranean. Anise, which is also found in South Asia was used by the Cherokee according to J. T. Garrett in "The Cherokee Herbal," and used for:

"treating asthma, severe colds, and stubborn coughs and as an expectorant. Sometimes it was combined with hophornbean for toothaches. It was also used with alumroot for treating inflammation and treating sores in the mouth. Today it is used for the same conditions and it is also used externally for muscle spasms, scabies, and to repel insects. Anise contains an essential oil that is effective as a cough remedy and expectorant. It is not recommended for use when pregnant."
At Wikipedia:
Medicinal Properties:
Anise, like fennel, contains anethole, a phytoestrogen.[7]
Anise has been used to treat menstrual cramps.[8]
The main use of anise in European herbal medicine was for its carminative effect, as noted by John Gerard in his "Great Herball,"[6] an early encyclopedia of herbal medicine.
The essential oil has reportedly been used as an insecticide against head-lice and mites.[9]
Historically, some confusion exists about whether the seed be fruit or a seedlike fruit albeit the type of interpretation made. From the image source above:

Etymology

The spice got its ancient names (Latin anisum from Greek anison [ἄνισον] or anneson [ἄννησον]) by confusion with with dill, which in Greek was known as aneton [ἄνητον]
Names of anise in virtually all European languages are derived from Latin anisum, with very little variation: The form anis is valid in a large number of languages, including Norwegian, Croatian, Finnish, Russian (written анис) Ukrainian (written аніс) and Hebrew (written אניס). Examples for names in other languages are Icelandic anís, Latvian anīss, Hungarian ánizs Czech anýz, Polish anyż, Estonian aniis, Italian anice, Romanian anason, Arabic al-yansun [اليانسون], Urdu anisuan [انیسواں] and Farsi anisun [انیسون].

Sanskrit shatapushpa [शतपुष्प] literally means a hundred flowers and probably refers to the flower cluster (umbel). The Sanskrit name was also applied to related plants, and some modern languages have borrowed the term from Sanskrit in non-compatible meanings. For example, thian-sattapusa [เทียนสัตตบุษย์] is the name of anise fruits in Thai herbal medicine, but Telugu shatapushpamu [శతపుష్పము] and Sinhala shatapushpa [ශතපුෂ්ප] both mean dill.

The Hindi name saunf [सौंफ] properly denotes fennel, which anise is thought to be a foreign variety of and which is often used interchangeably with anise. To distinguish anise clearly from fennel, the specialized terms patli saunf [पतली सौंफ] thin fennel or vilayati saunf [विलायती सौंफ] foreign fennel may be used.

Some languages name anise as a sweet variant of other, related spices; for example, Indonesian jinten manis and Arabic kamun halu [كمون حلو] both mean sweet cumin, a name which is also sometimes heard in English. Arabic has another, similar name habbu al-hulwa [حبة الحلوة] sweet grains. Portuguese erva doce sweet herb may denote anise, fennel or occasionally other sweet plants like sweetleaf (Stevia rebaudiana).

In regions where anise is less common than star anise, it may be denoted as a smaller or grainy variant of the latter. Examples include Vietnamese hat hoi [hạt hồi] grain-shaped star anise, Farsi badiyan romi [بادیان رومی] Roman star anise (where Rome just stands for the West, or Europe) and Uzbek arpa-bodiyon [арпабодиён] barley-like star anise.
This also from:

 Anise: A Curious Native Plant
AL FERRER
SEMINOLE COUNTY URBAN HORTICULTURIST
ANISE: A CURIOUS NATIVE PLANT
There are two North American anise species – yellow anise, a north central Florida native and Florida anise, which ranges from coastal Florida to Louisiana. Both belong to the genus Illicium that includes a cousin from Asia, I. anisatum, from which the anise flavoring is extracted commercially. Given its southern origin, anise is surprisingly hardy and can tolerate winter temperatures as low as –10 degrees Fahrenheit (F). Yellow anise: Yellow anise (I. parviflorum) is known by many names including Japanese, Star and Ocala anise. Yellow anise is grown for its foliage, rather than its flowers. The word parviflorum means “small flowered.” The tree can grow up to 25 feet, but usually only grows 10 to 12 feet tall and 4 to 8 feet wide. The leaves are simple, leathery, about 4 inches long, with an olive-green color and with a distinct anise aroma when crushed. The dime-sized, drooping, bell-shaped, yellow flowers have a faint anise fragrance. They emerge in June but tend to be hidden under new foliage.

Yellow anise is one of our most adaptable plants. It tolerates shade and sun, moist and dry soils. In full sun, it is an upright, tightly-growing shrub with erect leaves ranging in color form yellow to olive green. Dense shade promotes a relaxed habit with medium to dark green leaves and fewer blossoms. Yellow anise responds to shearing and training. Florida anise: Though generally a large shrub, Florida anise (I. floridanum), also known as purple anise, can become a small tree. Florida anise’s native range is from the panhandle to Louisiana, but it does well in central Florida and tolerates cold to well below freezing. The tree grows to 10 feet tall and 6 to 8 feet wide.

Florida anise has showy, deep red, star-shaped flowers up to 2 inches wide that appear in late March or early April. There are also pink and white varieties. The flowers have 20 to 30 tepals (a word used to describe a flower that has undifferentiated calyx and corolla) and dangle in clusters from branch tips. They also produce an unusual scent that can be detected up to 15 feet away. Large, ridged, disc-shaped fruits that are decorative in their own right follow the flowers. Florida anise can be grown in shade or full sun. Water requirements will be higher in sun.

Care and Culture: In the wild, anise tends to grow better in humus-rich, neutral to slightly acid soil. They’ll also grow in clay soils. Yellow anise is somewhat more adaptable than Florida anise but if provided with adequate organic material and water to establish, both will do well in sandy soils. Anise is hardy and has evolved into a virtually pest-free plant rarely sustaining insect damage. It may present mite and scale problems, but none of these problems is considered serious. It is virtually disease free, but drought-stressed plants may develop leaf spots. Anise can be propagated by seeds, branch tip cuttings and root sprouts. Add organic mulch to the planting hole and as a top dressing around the plant. Apply 6-12-12 or 10-10-10 fertilizer in spring and early fall. It can be planted at any time in Central Florida.

Landscape uses: The tree can be used as a specimen, border, clipped or unclipped hedge and also used in foundation planting.

All Seminole County Extension Services are Open to all Regardless of Race, Color, Sex, Handicap or National Origin.
You can purchase a 1000 seeds for 2 US dollars from this link and add them to your herbal garden. The plant leaves can also be used.

Cooking:
Source
Anise leaves are commonly used in salads, as well as meat dishes such as; chicken and fish, and also makes a great addition to many veggie dishes. The seeds are also used in salads, as well as in baked goods like; bread, bagels, and desserts.
This also from Alternative From Nature:
Uses: Anise promotes digestion, improves appetite, alleviates cramps and nausea, cough, colds, and relieves flatulence, bad breath, and, especially in infants, colic (mothers who sip anise tea will relieve the colic in the breast feeding baby). Is useful as an expectorant for coughs. Anise water promotes milk production in nursing mothers, and a soothing eyewash. Said to promote the onset of menstruation when taken as an infusion. Anise oil helps relieve cramping, and spasms and is good as a stomach tonic. For insomnia, that a few seeds in a glass of hot milk before bedtime. Can be made into a salve to use for scabies or lice. A tea made from equal parts of anise, caraway, and fennel makes an excellent intestinal purifier. Because of its sweetness, anise is a good additive to improve the flavor of other medicines.

1 comment:

  1. Thanks for your great information, the contents are quiet interesting.I will be waiting for your next post.
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